Malatya is located in the Upper Euphrates Basin of the Eastern Anatolia Region, and has connecting highways to the Central Anatolia, Mediterranean, Eastern Anatolia and South Eastern Anatolia Regions. Malatya is located in the southwest of the Eastern Anatolia Region and is surrounded by Elazığ to the east, by Erzincan to the northeast, by Sivas to the northwest, by Kahramanmaraş to the west, by Adıyaman to the south and by Diyarbakır to the southeast.

The landscape in Malatya is formed mostly of high plateaus and mountains. The mountain chain which forms the high western part of the South Eastern Taurus Mountains covers a large area in the south province. It includes the mountains Beydağı at 2544 m, Bozdağ at 2613 m, Karadağ at 2400 m and Kurudağ at 2100 meters. The Malatya Plain lies to the north of these mountain chains. The plain has the shape of a coarse triangle; it is surrounded by the South-eastern Taurus Mountains to the south, by the Euphrates River to the east and by the foothills of Akçadağ and the mountain pasture of Doğanşehir to the west. The Tohma River divides this large plain into two parts. The significant rivers of Malatya are the Euphrates, Tohma, Söğütlü, Sultansuyu, Beylerderesi, Derme Stream, Kuruçay, Sürgü, Mamihan and Şiro Stream. Plateaus and plains cover a large portion the Malatya Province. The significant plains are Malatya, Doğanşehir, İzollu, Akçadağ, Yazıhan, Mandıra, Distrik, Erkenek, Mığdı, Sürgü and Çaplı.

Generally a terrestrial climate condition prevails in Malatya. Usually, summers are hot and dry and winters are cold and snowy. It rains mostly in the spring and the fall seasons.

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